Jumat, 11 Februari 2011


Videocassette recorder
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A VHS VCR manufactured by Metz
The inside of a VCR
All video tape recorders are not videocassette recorders. The early models of VTRs were reel-to-reel devices that required hand-threading of the tape. (This is the first portable video recorder, the 1967 Ampex quadruplex.)
The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder or video machine), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later.
A VCR is different from a video tape recorder in that VTRs can also be reel-to-reel devices that require hand-threading of the tape from a single supply reel, through the recording mechanism and onto a separate take-up reel. VCRs tend to be lower maintenance than reel-to-reel VTRs, since the tape path is usually fully enclosed to keep dust out of the mechanism, and the tape is almost never touched by the user except when malfunctions occur.
Most VCRs have their own tuner (for direct TV reception) and a programmable timer (for unattended recording of a certain channel at a particular time). These began as simple mechanical counter-based features similar to those available on contemporary audio equipment, but quickly turned into major selling and differentiation points, with multiple programs possible through a menu interface that used the TV as a display.

[edit] History

[edit] Early machines and formats

The history of the videocassette recorder follows the history of videotape recording in general. Ampex introduced the Ampex VRX-1000, the first commercially successful videotape recorder, in 1956. It used the 2" Quadruplex format, using two-inch (5.1 cm) tape.[1] Due to its US$50,000 price, the Ampex VRX-1000 could be afforded only by the television networks and the largest individual stations.[2]
In 1963, Philips introduced their EL3400 1" helical scan recorder (aimed at the business and domestic user) and Sony marketed the 2" PV-100, their first reel-to-reel VTR intended for business, medical, airline, and educational use.[3]

[edit] First home video recorders

The Telcan, produced by the Nottingham Electronic Valve Company in 1963, was the first home video recorder. It could be bought as a unit or in kit form for £60. However, there were several drawbacks: it was expensive, not easy to put together and it could only record 20 minutes output at a time in black-and-white.[4][5][6]
The Sony model CV-2000, first marketed in 1965, was their first VTR intended for home use and was based on half inch tape.[7] Ampex and RCA followed in 1965 with their own reel-to-reel monochrome VTRs priced under US $1,000 for the home consumer market.
The EIAJ format was a standard half-inch format used by various manufacturers. EIAJ-1 was an open reel format. EIAJ-2 used a cartridge that contained a supply reel, but not the take-up reel. As the take-up reel was part of the recorder, the tape had to be fully rewound before removing the cartridge, a slow procedure.
The development of the videocassette followed the replacement by cassette of other open reel systems in consumer items: the Stereo-Pak 4-track audio cartridge in 1962, the compact audio cassette and Instamatic film cartridge in 1963, the 8-track cartridge in 1965, and the Super 8 home movie cartridge in 1966.

[edit] Sony U-matic

Sony demonstrated a videocassette prototype in October 1969, then set it aside to work out an industry standard by March 1970 with seven fellow manufacturers. The result, the Sony U-matic system, introduced in Tokyo in September 1971, was the world's first commercial videocassette format. Its cartridges, resembling larger versions of the later VHS cassettes, used 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) tape and had a maximum playing time of 60 minutes, later extended to 90 minutes. Sony also introduced two machines (the VP-1100 videocassette player and the VO-1700 videocassette recorder) to use the new tapes. U-matic, with its ease of use, quickly made other consumer videotape systems obsolete in Japan and North America, where U-matic VCRs were widely used by television newsrooms, schools and businesses. But the cost—US$1,395 for a combination TV/VCR, or $7,069 in 2007 dollars—kept it out of most homes.[8]

[edit] Philips "VCR" format

An N1500 video recorder, with wooden cabinet.
In 1970 Philips developed a home videocassette format. Confusingly, Philips named this format "VCR" (although it is also referred to as "N1500", after the first recorder's model number). The format was also supported by Grundig and Loewe. It used square cassettes and half-inch (1.3 cm) tape, mounted on co-axial reels, giving a recording time of one hour. The first model, available in the United Kingdom in 1972, was equipped with a crude timer that used rotary dials. At nearly £600 ($2087), it was expensive and the format was relatively unsuccessful in the home market. This was followed by digital timer version in 1975, the N1502. In 1977 a new (and incompatible) long-play version ("VCR-LP") or N1700, which could use the same tapes, sold quite well to schools and colleges.

[edit] Avco Cartrivision

The Avco Cartrivision system, a combination television set and VCR from Cartridge Television Inc. that sold for US $1,350, was the first videocassette recorder to have pre-recorded tapes of popular movies available for rent. Like Philips' VCR format, the square Cartrivision cassette had the two reels of half-inch tape mounted on top of each other, but it could record up to 114 minutes. It did so using a crude form of video compression that recorded only every third video field and played it back three times. Cassettes of major movies such as The Bridge on the River Kwai and Guess Who's Coming to Dinner were ordered via catalog at a retailer, delivered by parcel mail, and then returned to the retailer after viewing. Other cassettes on sports, travel, art, and how-to topics were available for purchase. An optional monochrome camera could be bought to make home videos. Cartrivision was first sold in June 1972, mainly through Sears, Macy's, and Montgomery Ward department stores in the United States. It was abandoned thirteen months later after poor sales.

[edit] The late 1970s: Mass-market success

It was not until the late 1970s, when European and Japanese companies developed more technically advanced machines with more accurate electronic timers and greater tape duration, that the VCR started to become a mass market consumer product. By 1979 there were three competing technical standards, with different, physically incompatible tape cassettes.

[edit] VHS vs. Betamax

A Betamax cassette
The two major standards were Sony's Betamax (also known as Betacord or just Beta), and JVC's VHS [Video Home System], which battled for sales in what has become known as the original and definitive format war.
Betamax was first to market in November 1975, and was argued by many to be technically more sophisticated,[9] although many users did not perceive a difference. The first machines required an external timer, and could only record one hour. The timer was later incorporated within the machine as a standard feature.
The rival VHS format, introduced in Japan in September 1976 (and introduced in the United States in July 1977 by JVC) boasted a longer two-hour recording time, with four hours using a "long play" mode (RCA SelectaVision models, introduced in September 1977). Because 2 hours and 4 hours was near-ideal for recording movies and sports-games respectively, the consumer naturally flocked towards VHS rather than the 1-hour-limited Betamax. Although Sony later introduced Beta-II and Beta-III to allow a maximum time of 5+ hours, by that time VHS was already boasting 6, 8, or even 9 hours per tape. Thus VHS had a perceived "better value" in the eye of the consumer during the late 1970s.[citation needed]
Philips V2000 format video cassette recorder

[edit] Philips Video 2000

A third format, Video 2000, or V2000 (also marketed as "Video Compact Cassette") was developed and introduced by Philips in 1978, and was sold only in Europe. Grundig developed and marketed their own models based on the V2000 format. Most V2000 models featured piezoelectric head positioning to dynamically adjust the tape tracking. V2000 cassettes had two sides, and like the audio cassette had to be flipped over halfway through their recording time. User switchable record protect levers were used instead of the breakable lugs found on VHS/Beta cassettes. The half-inch tape used contained two parallel quarter-inch tracks, one for each side. It had a recording time of 4 hours per side, later extended to 8 hours per side on a few models. V2000 hit the market after its two rivals in early 1979. The last models produced by Philips in 1985 were felt by many to be superior machines to anything else on the market at the time but the poor reputation gained through the limited features and poor reliability of early models, and the by now dominant market share of VHS/Betamax, ensured only limited sales before the system was scrapped shortly after.

[edit] Other early formats

Some less successful consumer videocassette formats include:

[edit] The court battle

In the early 1980s, the film companies in the USA fought to suppress the device in the consumer market, citing concerns about copyright violations. In Congressional hearings, Motion Picture Association of America head Jack Valenti decried the "savagery and the ravages of this machine" and likened its effect on the film industry and the American public to the Boston strangler:
We are going to bleed and bleed and hemorrhage, unless this Congress at least protects one industry that is able to retrieve a surplus balance of trade and whose total future depends on its protection from the savagery and the ravages of this machine. ... I say to you that the VCR is to the American film producer and the American public as the Boston strangler is to the woman home alone.
—Hearings before the Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties and the Administration of Justice of the Committee of the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4783, H.R. 4794 H.R. 4808, H.R. 5250, H.R. 5488, and H.R. 5705, Serial No 97, Part I, Home Recording of Copyrighted Works, April 12, 1982. US Government Printing Office.[10]
In the case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the device was allowable for private use, thereby guaranteeing market acceptance. In the years following, the film companies found that videorecordings of their products had become a major income source.

[edit] Product Flaws

The Video Cassette Recorder is known to have glitches and common bugs. Reviews state that people experience the magnetic tape of the VHS to be 'chewed' or 'eaten' when ejected from the machine due to a lack of cleaning, or old age, and therefore the VHS tape becomes unusable. VHS tapes recorded in LP or EP/SLP mode tend to not play back very well on other machines, and tapes recorded on a machine made before 1995 tend to not play well on newer machines. Newer VCRs tend to have a shorter lifespan than older units, and are built with cheaper designs and parts, resulting in new machines not having many buttons on the unit, such as tape speed, display, seconds counter, tracking, audio monitor, etc. and relying more on the remote and automatic features.

[edit] Decline

A typical VCR toward the end of its popularity. After decades of refinement in design and production, models similar to this were available for under US$50
In the early 2000s, DVD gradually overtook VHS as the most popular consumer format for playback of prerecorded video. DVD recorders and other digital video recorders such as TiVo have recently begun to drop in price in developed countries, which some consider to be the end for VCRs in those markets. DVD rentals in the United States first exceeded those of VHS in June 2003, and in 2005 the president of the Video Software Dealers Association predicted that 2006 would be the last year for major releases on VHS.[11] Most consumer electronics retailers in North America (such as Best Buy) carry only a few VCRs (often VCR/DVD-recorder hybrids). Due to economies of scale and simpler construction, DVD players gradually became cheaper than VCRs.
Because of lack of sales, most manufacturers slowly reduced their VCR lineups to only basic consumer models (phasing out professional models and S-VHS models) or stopped production completely.
The declining market combined with a Federal Communications Commission mandate effective March 1, 2007, that all new TV tuners be ATSC tuners have encouraged major electronics makers, including Funai, JVC, and Panasonic, to end production of standalone units for the U.S. market. To avoid this costly mandate, most new standalone VCRs in the U.S. today can only record from external baseband sources (usually composite video), including CECBs which (by NTIA mandate) all have composite outputs, as well as those ATSC tuners (including TVs) & cable boxes that come with composite outputs. Netflix, the leading online video rental service in the United States, does not offer VHS tapes.
The new high definition optical disc format Blu-ray Disc may gradually replace the DVD format. Some analysts[who?] expect this change to take place like the VHS to DVD transition. However, with many homes still having a large supply of VHS tapes and with all Blu-ray players designed to play regular DVD's and CD's by default, some manufacturers are now making VCR/Blu-ray combo players.[12]

[edit] Special features

[edit] Multi Standard

One of the problems faced with the use of video recorders was especially the exchange of recordings between PAL and NTSC countries. Multi Standard video recorders and TV sets gradually overcame these incompatibility problems.

[edit] Stereo Sound & HiFi

The U-matic machines were always made with Stereo, and Beta and VHS started out splitting the audio track on the tape, but the slow tape speed of Beta and VHS limited the sound quality. So HiFi was introduced where they modulated the Left and Right sound tracks as FM on the video portion of the tape.
The 8 mm format always used the video portion of the tape for sound, with an FM carrier between the band space of the chrominance and luminance on the tape. 8 mm could be upgraded to Stereo, by adding an extra FM signal for Stereo difference.

[edit] Copy protection

Introduced in 1983, Macrovision is a system that reduces the quality of recordings made from commercial video tapes, DVDs and pay-per-view broadcasts by adding random peaks of luminance to the video signal during vertical blanking. These confuse the automatic level adjustment of the recording VCR which causes the brightness of the picture to constantly change, rendering the recording unwatchable.
When creating a copy-protected videocassette, the Macrovision-distorted signal is stored on the tape itself by special recording equipment. By contrast, on DVDs there is just a marker asking the player to produce such a distortion during playback. All standard DVD players include this protection and obey the marker, though unofficially many models can be modified or adjusted to disable it.
Also, the Macrovision protection system may fail to work on older VCR's made before 1986 and some high end decks built afterwords, usually due to the lack of an AGC system. Newer VHS and S-VHS machines (and DVD recorders) are susceptible to this signal; generally, machines of other tape formats are unaffected, such as all 3 Betamax variants. VCRs designated for "professional" usage typically have an adjustable AGC system, a specific "Macrovision removing" circuit, or Digital Timebase Corrector and can thus copy protected tapes with or without preserving the protection. Such VCRs are usually overpriced and sold exclusively to certified professionals (video editors, TV stations etc.) via controlled distribution channels in order to prevent their being used by the general public (however, said professional VCRs can be purchased reasonably by consumers on the second-hand/used market, depending on the VCR's condition). Nowadays, most DVDs still have copyright protection, but certain DVDs do not have it, usually pornography and bootlegs. However, some DVDs, such as certain DVD sets do not have the protection against VHS copying, possibly due to the VHS format no longer used as a major retail medium for movies.

[edit] Flying erase-heads

"Flying erase-heads" is an attribute of some VCRs to precisely edit video, usually performed by the aid of a frame buffer and a special interface to the VCR from a computer. The flying erase-head and the technique of using them was developed during a time when computers did not have sufficient memory for professional video editing applications.
[edit] Variants

Selasa, 21 Desember 2010



  1. hubungkan cassete recorder ke PLN
  2. masukkan cassete ke dalamnya
  3. silahkan jalankan kegiatan yang anda lakukan

  • seperti merekam, 
  • memainkan ulang, 
  • menghapus, 
  • dsb.

apabila menggunakan USB juga bisa,, tinggal memasang ke bagian input USB saja, dan kemudian mainkan musik yang anda pilih.



Instructions Petunjuk
Hal-hal yang Anda akan BUTUHKAN:
Radio Shack Cassette Repair Kit Radio Shack Kaset Repair Kit
Cassette Tape Editing/splicing Block Kaset Tape Editing / splicing Blok
Single-edged Razor Blades Bermata tunggal Razor Blades
Editing/splicing Tape Editing / splicing Tape
jeweler’s Phillips-head screwdriver perhiasan Phillips-head obeng
1. Lepaskan lima sekrup dari setengah atas tempurung kaset. Jika kaset belahan shell direkatkan, sangat hati-hati split shell dengan obeng Phillips-kepala. Manuver obeng sekitar shell untuk membuka segel tersebut. Menghindari memotong atau merusak komponen internal kaset.
2. Hati-hati angkat dari bagian atas shell kaset.
3 Tarik utuh pita dari reel kiri. Menangani tape sesedikit mungkin.
4 Posisi tape di alur blok splicing.
5 Tutup klem atas rekaman itu.
6 Potong sepanjang slot miring di blok splicing dengan pisau cukur tunggal mengalami kerusakan magnetik atau pisau bermata X-Acto.
7 Lepaskan pita dari blok splicing.
8 Tarik utuh pita dari reel yang tepat. Repeat Steps 4 to 6. Ulangi Langkah 4 sampai 6
9 Tempat tape dari reel tersisa di blok splicing, sehingga ujung pita bertemu di tengah.
10 Potong strip 1/2-inch tape editing. Tempat dimana tape memenuhi kebutuhan. Smooth dengan ujung belakang pena.

11 Posisi pita di bagian bawah shell kaset. Hati-hati angin pita sekitar pin plastik stasioner dan rol di setiap sisi. Posisi tape antara pad tekanan dan depan “gigi” dari shell kaset.
12 Tempatkan lembar filmy atas tape dengan sisi tumpul menghadap ke bawah.
13 Setengah hati-hati posisi atas tempurung kaset di bawah setengah. Pastikan Anda tidak mencubit tape antara dua bagian dari shell.
14 Sekrup atau tape shell bagian bersama-sama.
15 Manual mundur inci beberapa kaset sebelum pengujian.

  1. ^ "Dansbandsbloggen 21 maj 2006 - ''Vad händer med dansbandsutgivningen när Bert säljer?''". Dansbandsbloggen.se. http://www.dansbandsbloggen.se/2006/05/vad-hnder-med-dansbandsutgivningen-nr.html. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 
  2. ^ http://www.giri.in/category.asp?tname=gitaa_cassettes&catname=GITAA+Cassettes+&dept=2
  3. ^ http://allafrica.com/stories/201004190264.html
  4. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2010/mar/29/audio-cassette-comeback
  5. ^ "Analysis of an SDR Cassette Tape"




1) Secara singkat :
  • Pilih tempat yang bebas debu & bebas goncangan
  • Letakan pesawat pada posisi mendatar
  • Pada waktu melakukan instalasi pesawat harus dalam keadaan mati ( off )
  • Sebelum mengoperasikan pesawat, perhatikan sumber daya yang akan digunakan ( listrik atau baterai )
  • Membersihkan pesawat cukup dengan kain kering atau diberi sedikit air, jangan menggunakan bahan kimia seperti spirtus, alcohol, bensin, dll.
  • Hubungi service terdekat jika pesawat mengalami kerusakan.

2) Secara rinci :
Pertama, jangan pernah menyimpan kaset dalam kondisi setengah habis (masih terdapat pita hitam). Pastikan kaset tersimpan dalam kotaknya dalam kondisi habis (pita putih) untuk menghindari perubahan kualitas suara kaset
Kedua, kebiasaan menyimpan kaset di dalam tape bukanlah hal yang baik. Head tape adalah medan magnet yang bisa membuat koleksi kaset mengalami perubahan suara naik turun. Setelah didengarkan, keluarkan segera kaset dan simpan pada kotaknya.
Ketiga, siapkan rak khusus koleksi kaset dengan sirkulasi udara yang baik. Berikan rongga antar kaset,
sehingga meminimalisir koleksi dari resiko terkena jamur. [Kalo udah dempet-dempet dan salah satu koleksi kena jamur, biasanya nular ke koleksi lain.
Jika koleksi kaset sudah terlanjur terkena jamur. Rendam kaset ke dalam ember berisi air selama 1-2 hari. Setelah itu, keringkan kaset di tempat yang tidak terkena sinar matahari langsung sampai kaset benar-benar kering.
Berikan silica gel di tempat menyimpan koleksi kaset. Pemakaian silica gel dipercaya ampuh mencegah kaset-kaset terkena jamur.





Memahami Langkah atau Prosedur

Peralatan Audio

Peralatan Audio adalah perangkat elektronika yang menghasilkan frekuensi suara yang dapat didengar oleh manusia baik untuk rumah tangga, Otomotif, perkantoran, Rumah Sakit ataupun untuk fasilitas umum. Seperti pesawat tape recorder, VCD, Radio, VCR, tone control, equalizer, mixer audio, power amp, dan lain-lain.

Kecermatan memahami langkah atau prosedur pengoperasian peralatan Audio

Untuk dapat mengoperasikan peralatan Audio yang benar agar tidak terjadi kesalahan maka sebaiknya memahami hal-hal dibawah ini


1. Simbol petir di dalam segitiga dimaksudkan untuk memperingatkan pengguna terhadap adanya tegangan tinggi di dalam yang tidak terisolasi. 2. Tanda seru di dalam segitiga di maksudkan untuk memperingatkan pengguna terhadap adanya intruksi penting pengoperasian & perawatan penting dalam literature yang menyertai produk.

Prosedur Baku Pengoperasian Peralatan Audio 

Untuk mengoperasikan pesawat Audio tentunya harus beracuan pada buku petunjuk pengoperasian (user manual) agar dalam mengoperasikan tidak terjadi kesalahan yang dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan dan kecelakaan baik pada alat maupun peralatan Audio tersebut.
Secara umum pengoperasian pesawat Audio disesuaikan pada fungsi tombol-tombol maupun conector pada panel dpan & belakang pada pesawat Audio masing-masing artinya tombol-tombol konektor pada peralatan Audio hampir sama dengan fungsinya masing-masing.

Berikut contoh tombol-tombol pada peralatan Audio

Setelah mengetahui fungsi tombol-tombol masing-masing peralatan Audio baru langkah berikutnya yaitu melakukan langkah atau prosedur baku pengoperasian.
Berikut ini contoh pengoperasian pada pesawat cassette recorder yaitu :

Atur knob atau tombol “ Function “ pada posisi “Tape”

Buka tempat kaset dengan menenak tombol “ Stop/Eject “

Masukkan kaset ke tempat kaset sesuai dengan sisi kaset yang akan dimainkan.

Tekan tombol “ Play “ untuk memainkannya.

5 Atur volume & graphic equalizer sesuai dengan selera anda.




prinsip kerja compact cassette recorder

Compact Cassette, yang biasa disebut kaset, pita kaset, atau tape adalah media penyimpan data yang umumnya berupa lagu. Berasal dari bahasa Perancis, yakni cassette yang berarti “kotak kecil”. Kaset berupa pita magnetik yang mampu merekam data dengan format suara. Dari tahun 1970 sampai 1990-an, kaset merupakan salah satu format media yang paling umum digunakan dalam industri musik.
Kaset terdiri dari kumparan-kumparan kecil. Kumparan-kumparan dan bagian-bagian lainnya ini terbungkus dalam bungkus plastik berbentuk kotak kecil berbentuk persegi panjang. Di dalamnya terdapat sepasang roda putaran untuk pita magnet. Pita ini akan berputar dan menggulung ketika kaset dimainkan atau merekam. Ketika pita bergerak ke salah satu arah dan yang lainnya bergerak ke arah yang lain. Hal ini membuat kaset dapat dimainkan atau merekam di kedua sisinya. Contohnya, side A dan side B.
Kaset pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Phillips pada tahun 1963 di Eropa dan tahun 1964 di Amerika Serikat, dengan nama Compact Cassette. Kemudian kaset semakin populer di industri musik selama tahun 1970-an dan perlahan-lahan menggeser piringan hitam. Produksi besar kaset diawali pada tahun 1964 di Hanover, Jerman. Pada awalnya, kualitas suara pada kaset ini tidak terlalu bagus untuk musik. Bahkan beberapa model awal tidak memiliki rancangan mesin yang baik. Pada tahun 1971, The Advant Corporation memperkenalkan model terbarunya, Model 201, yang menggabungkan Dolby tipe B pengurang gangguan (noise) dengan pita kromium dioksida. Oleh karena itulah kaset mulai dapat digunakan dalam industri musik secara serius, dan dimulailah era kaset berketepatan tinggi.
Selama tahun 1980-an, popularitas kaset tumbuh semakin pesat karena hadirnya rekorder poket portabel pemutarnya seperti Sony’s Walkman. Seperti radio yang menyediakan musik pada 1960-an, pemutar CD portable pada 1990-an, dan MP3 player pada 2000-an, kaset memegang peran besar dalam dunia musik pada 1980-an dan 1990-an, bahkan di era sekarang (setelah 2000-an), kaset masih menjadi salah satu alternatif media musik. Lepas dari segi tekniknya, keberadaan kaset juga berdampak pada perubahan sosial. Keawetan kaset serta kemudahannya untuk dikopi berperan di balik berkembangnya musik punk dan rock. Kaset seakan-akan menjadi pijakan bagi generasi muda di kebudayaan barat. Untuk alasan yang sama pula kaset berkembang pesat di negara-negara berkembang. Pada tahun 1970-an, kaset dianggap membawa pengaruh buruk sekularisme di kalangan masyarakat religius India. Teknologi kaset menciptakan pasar yang membludak bagi musik pop di India.
Penyimpanan magnetik dan perekaman magnetik istilah dari rekayasa mengacu pada penyimpanan data pada media magnet. penyimpanan magnetik menggunakan pola yang berbeda dari magnetisasi dalam bahan magnet untuk menyimpan data dan merupakan bentuk memori non-volatile. Informasi diakses menggunakan satu atau lebih membaca / menulis kepala. Pada 2009, media penyimpan yang bersifat magnetis, terutama hard disk, secara luas digunakan untuk menyimpan data komputer serta sinyal audio dan video. Di bidang komputasi, penyimpanan magnetik istilah lebih disukai dan di bidang produksi audio dan video, rekaman magnetik istilah lebih umum digunakan. Perbedaan kurang teknis dan lebih merupakan masalah preferensi. Contoh lain dari media penyimpan yang bersifat magnetis termasuk disket, pita rekaman magnetik, dan garis-garis magnetik pada kartu kredit.

Compact kaset terdiri dari dua kelos miniatur, antara yang tape magnetis dilapisi plastik adalah berlalu dan luka. Kelos ini dan bagian pembantu mereka diadakan di dalam tempurung plastik pelindung. Dua pasang stereo track (empat total) atau dua track audio mono yang tersedia pada pita; satu pasang stereo atau satu trek monofonik diputar atau dicatat pada saat rekaman bergerak dalam satu arah dan pasangan kedua ketika bergerak ke arah lain. pembalikan Hal ini dicapai baik oleh membalik kaset secara manual atau dengan memiliki mesin itu sendiri mengubah arah gerakan tape ("auto-reverse").





Kaset video


rekaman video adalah merekam gambar dan suara pada pita magnetik sebagai lawan untuk film film atau random access media digital. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram. Kaset video juga digunakan untuk menyimpan data ilmiah atau medis, seperti data yang dihasilkan oleh elektrokardiogram. In most cases, a helical scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions, because video signals have a very high bandwidth, and static heads would require extremely high tape speeds. Dalam kebanyakan kasus, sebuah heliks scan kepala memutar video melawan pita bergerak untuk merekam data dalam dua dimensi, karena sinyal video memiliki bandwidth yang sangat tinggi, dan kepala statis akan membutuhkan kaset kecepatan tinggi sangat. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders ( VTRs ) or, more commonly and more recently, video cassette recorders ( VCRs ) and video cameras . Kaset video digunakan dalam kedua video tape recorder (VTR) atau, lebih umum dan lebih baru-baru ini, perekam kaset video ( VCR ) dan kamera video . Tape is a linear method of storing information and, since nearly all video recordings made nowadays are digital, it is expected to gradually lose importance as non-linear/random-access methods of storing digital video data become more common. Tape adalah metode linear menyimpan informasi dan, karena hampir semua rekaman video yang dibuat saat ini adalah digital, diharapkan secara bertahap kalah pentingnya sebagai metode non-linear/random-access untuk menyimpan data video digital menjadi lebih umum.

format Kaset

A U-matic tape Sebuah tape U-matic
In 1969, Sony introduced a prototype for the first widespread video cassette, the 3/4" (1.905 cm) composite U-matic system, which Sony introduced commercially in September 1971 after working out industry standards with other manufacturers. Sony later refined it to Broadcast Video U-matic or BVU. Sony continued its hold on the professional market with its ever-expanding 1/2" (1.27 cm) component video Betacam family (introduced in 1982), which, in its digital variants, is still among the professional market leaders. Panasonic had some limited success with its MII system, but never could compare to Betacam in terms of market share. Pada tahun 1969, Sony memperkenalkan prototipe untuk video kaset luas pertama, 3 / 4 "(1,905 cm) komposit U-matic sistem, yang Sony diperkenalkan secara komersial pada September 1971 setelah bekerja standar industri dengan produsen lain kemudian. Sony disempurnakan untuk Broadcast Video U-matic atau BVU. Sony terus memegang pada pasar profesional dengan yang pernah-berkembang 1 / 2 "(1,27 cm) komponen video Betacam keluarga (diperkenalkan pada tahun 1982), yang pada varian digital, masih di antara pemimpin pasar profesional. Panasonic memiliki beberapa keberhasilan terbatas dengan perusahaan MII sistem, tetapi tidak pernah bisa dibandingkan dengan Betacam dalam hal pangsa pasar.
The next step was the digital revolution. Langkah berikutnya adalah digital revolusi. Among the first digital video formats Sony's D-1 , which featured uncompressed digital component recording. Di antara format video digital pertama Sony D-1 , yang menampilkan rekaman komponen digital terkompresi. Because D-1 was extremely expensive, the composite D-2 and D-3 (by Sony and Panasonic, respectively) were introduced soon after. Karena D-1 sangat mahal, komposit D-2 dan D-3 (oleh Sony dan Panasonic, masing-masing) diperkenalkan segera setelah. Ampex introduced the first compressed component recording with its DCT series in 1992. Ampex memperkenalkan rekaman komponen dikompresi pertama dengan perusahaan DCT seri pada tahun 1992. Panasonic trumped D-1 with its D-5 format, which was uncompressed as well, but much more affordable. Panasonic palsu D-1 dengan yang 5 D- format, yang tidak dikompresi juga, tetapi jauh lebih terjangkau.


Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Pemandangan bawah VHS kaset rekaman video dengan pita magnetik terkena
The first consumer videocassette recorders were launched in 1971 (based around U-matic technology). Philips entered the domestic market the following year with the N1500 [ 17 ] . Konsumen pertama perekam kaset video yang diluncurkan pada tahun 1971 (berbasis di sekitar U-matic teknologi). Philips memasuki pasar domestik tahun berikutnya dengan N1500 pada [17] . Sony's Betamax (1975) and JVC's VHS (1976) created a mass-market for VCRs and the two competing systems battled the " videotape format war ", which VHS ultimately won. Sony Betamax (1975) dan JVC VHS (1976) menciptakan pasar massal untuk VCR dan dua sistem yang bersaing memerangi " perang format kaset video ", yang akhirnya dimenangkan VHS. At first VCRs were very expensive, but by the late 1980s the price had come down enough to make them affordable to a mainstream audience. Pada VCR pertama sangat mahal, tetapi oleh akhir 1980-an harga turun cukup untuk membuat mereka terjangkau untuk audiens arus utama. Videocassettes finally made it possible for consumers to buy or rent a complete film and watch it at home whenever they wished, rather than simply catching it at a movie theatre or having to wait until it was telecast. Kaset video akhirnya memungkinkan bagi konsumen untuk membeli atau menyewa lengkap dan menonton film di rumah setiap kali mereka inginkan, bukan hanya penangkapan itu di film bioskop atau harus menunggu sampai itu siaran. It also made it possible for a VCR owner to record films and other television programs "off the air". Hal ini juga memungkinkan bagi pemilik VCR untuk merekam film dan program televisi lainnya "dari udara".. Moreover, a DVD can be played on a computer. Selain itu, sebuah DVD dapat diputar pada komputer.
Due to these advantages, by the mid-2000s, DVDs were the dominant form of prerecorded video movies in both the rental film and new movie markets. Karena keunggulan ini, oleh-pertengahan tahun 2000-an, DVD adalah bentuk dominan dari film video rekaman baik di film sewa dan pasar film baru. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, though, consumers continued to use VCRs to record over-the-air TV shows, because consumers could not make home recordings onto DVD disks. Pada akhir 1990-an dan awal 2000-an, meskipun, konsumen terus menggunakan VCR untuk merekam lebih dari acara TV-the-air, karena konsumen tidak bisa membuat rumah rekaman ke DVD disk. This last barrier to DVD domination was broken in the late 2000s, with the advent of inexpensive DVD recorders and digital video recorders (DVR). Penghalang ini terakhir dominasi DVD patah di akhir tahun 2000-an, dengan munculnya perekam DVD murah dan perekam video digital (DVR). DVR devices, which record shows onto a hard disk, can be purchased from electronics stores or rented from cable or satellite TV providers. perangkat DVR, yang merekam acara ke hard disk, dapat dibeli dari toko elektronik atau disewa dari penyedia layanan TV kabel atau satelit. Despite the mainstream dominance of DVD, VHS continues to have a role. Meskipun dominasi mainstream DVD, VHS terus memiliki peran. The conversion to DVD has led to the marketplace being flooded with used VHS films, which are available at pawnshops and second-hand stores, typically for a cheaper price than the equivalent film on a used DVD. Konversi ke DVD telah menyebabkan pasar dibanjiri dengan film-film VHS digunakan, yang tersedia di pegadaian dan toko kedua tangan, biasanya dengan harga lebih murah daripada film setara pada DVD yang digunakan. As well, due to the large number of VHS players in schools and libraries, VHS tapes are still produced for the educational market. Selain itu, karena banyaknya pemain VHS di sekolah-sekolah dan perpustakaan, kaset VHS masih diproduksi untuk pasar pendidikan.


DV cassettes Kaset DV
Left to right: DVCAM-L, DVCPRO-M, DVC/MiniDV Kiri ke kanan:-L DVCAM, DVCPRO-M, DVC / MiniDV
Early consumer camcorders used full-size VHS or Betamax cassettes. Awal konsumen camcorder digunakan ukuran penuh atau kaset VHS Betamax. Later models switched to more compact formats, designed explicitly for camcorder use, like VHS-C and Video8 . VHS-C was a downsized version of VHS, using the same recording method and the same tape, but in a smaller cassette. Kemudian model beralih ke format kompak lebih, dirancang secara eksplisit untuk penggunaan camcorder, seperti VHS-C dan Video8 . VHS-C adalah versi dirampingkan dari VHS, dengan menggunakan metode perekaman yang sama dan pita yang sama, tetapi dalam sebuah kaset yang lebih kecil. It was possible to play VHS-C tapes in a regular VHS tape recorder by using an adaptor. Hal ini memungkinkan untuk memutar kaset VHS-C tape recorder VHS biasa dengan menggunakan adaptor. After Super VHS had appeared, a corresponding compact version, Super VHS-C, was released as well. Video8 was an indirect descendant of Betamax, using narrower tape and a smaller cassette. Setelah Super VHS telah muncul, sesuai versi kompak, Super VHS-C, dirilis juga. Video8 adalah keturunan langsung dari Betamax, menggunakan tape sempit dan kaset yang lebih kecil. Because of its intricate U-shaped tape loading and narrower tape, it was not possible to develop an adapter from Video8 to Betamax. Karena loading pita rumit berbentuk U dan pita sempit, tidak mungkin untuk mengembangkan adaptor dari Video8 ke Betamax. Video8 was later replaced with Hi8 , which provided better resolution and high-quality sound recording, and was similar to Super VHS-C. Video8 kemudian diganti dengan Hi8 , yang menyediakan resolusi yang lebih baik dan kualitas suara rekaman-tinggi, dan mirip dengan Super VHS-C.
The first consumer digital video recording format, introduced in 1995, used a smaller Digital Video Cassette (DVC). [ 18 ] The format was later renamed MiniDV to reflect the DV encoding scheme, but the tapes still carry "DVC" mark. Format pertama konsumen digital merekam video, diperkenalkan pada tahun 1995, menggunakan lebih kecil Digital Video Cassette (DVC). [18] Format kemudian berganti nama menjadi MiniDV untuk mencerminkan DV skema pengkodean, tapi kaset masih membawa "DVC" tanda. Some later formats like DVC Pro from Panasonic reflect the original name. Beberapa format kemudian seperti DVC Pro dari Panasonic mencerminkan nama asli. The DVC/MiniDV format provided near-broadcast quality video and sophisticated nonlinear editing capability on consumer equipment. The DVC / format MiniDV yang disediakan dekat-broadcast video berkualitas dan canggih kemampuan pengeditan nonlinier pada peralatan konsumen. In 1999 Sony backported the DV recording scheme to 8-mm systems, creating Digital8 . Pada tahun 1999 Sony backported skema perekaman DV untuk 8-mm sistem, menciptakan Digital8 . By using the same cassettes as Hi8, many Digital8 camcorders were able to play analog Video8/Hi8 recordings, preserving compatibility with already recorded analog tapes. Dengan menggunakan kaset yang sama dengan Hi8, Digital8 camcorder banyak yang dapat memainkan rekaman Video8/Hi8 analog, menjaga kompatibilitas dengan kaset analog yang sudah direkam. As of 2008, Digital8 camcorders have been removed from the equipment offered by Sony. Pada tahun 2008, Digital8 camcorder telah dihapus dari peralatan yang ditawarkan oleh Sony. Sejak tahun 2001, ketika MicroMV yang disajikan, tidak ada faktor bentuk tape baru telah diperkenalkan.


  1. ^ "Tape Recording Used by Filmless 'Camera'," New York Times , Nov. 12, 1951, p. ^ "Merekam Tape Digunakan oleh Filmless 'Kamera'," New York Times, 12 November 1951, hal 21. 21.
  2. ^ Eric D. Daniel, C. Denis Mee, and Mark H. Clark (eds.), Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years , IEEE Press, 1998, p. ^ Eric D. Daniel, C. Denis Mee, dan Mark H. Clark (eds.), Magnetic Recording: Pertama 100 Tahun, IEEE Press, 1998, hal 141. ISBN 0-070-41275-8 141. ISBN 0-070-41275-8
  3. ^ "Tape-Recorded TV Nears Perfection," New York Times , Dec. 31, 1952, p. ^ "-Rekaman TV Tape mendekati Kesempurnaan," New York Times, 31 Desember 1952, hal 10. 10.
  4. ^ "New Deal on TV Seen at Parley," New York Times , May 1, 1953, p. ^ "New Deal di TV Dilihat di Parley," New York Times, 1 Mei 1953, hal 30. 30.
  5. ^ Daniel et al., p. ^ Daniel et al., hal 148. 148. BCE was acquired by 3M Company in 1956. SM diakuisisi oleh 3M Perusahaan pada tahun 1956.
  6. ^ "Magnetic Tape Used By RCA to Photograph Television Program," The Wall Street Journal , Dec. 2, 1953, p. ^ "Magnetic Tape Digunakan Dengan RCA untuk Program Televisi Photograph," The Wall Street Journal, 2, Desember 1953, hal 1. 1.
  7. ^ " Color TV on Tape ", Popular Mechanics , April 1954, p. ^ " Color TV pada Tape ", Mekanika Panas, April 1954, hal 157. 157.
  8. ^ Stewart Wolpin, "The Race to Video" , Invention & Technology , Fall 1994. ^ Stewart Wolpin, "The Race ke Video" , Penemuan & Teknologi, Fall 1994.
  9. ^ " TV Goes to Tape ", Popular Science , Feb. 1960, p. ^ " TV Goes to Tape ", Ilmu Populer, Feb 1960, hal 238. 238.
  10. ^ Ed Reitan, RCA-NBC Firsts in Color Television (commented) . ^ Ed Reitan, RCA-NBC pengalaman pertama di Color Television (komentar) .
  11. ^ a b c " Charles P. Ginsburg ". Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering , Vol. ^ a b c " Charles P. Ginsburg ": Memorial. upeti National Academy of Engineering, Vol. 7. 7. 1994: The National Academies Press, Washington DC. 1994: The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
  12. ^ Ampex Corporation, Ampex Chronology . ^ Ampex Corporation, Kronologis Ampex .
  13. ^ "Daily NBC Show Will Be on Tape", New York Times , Jan. 18, 1957, p. ^ "Tampilkan NBC Daily Akan di Tape", New York Times, 18 Januari 1957, hal 31. 31.
  14. ^ " Industry Agrees to Standardize Tape Recording on Ampex Lines ", Billboard , Oct. 28, 1957, p. ^ " Industri Sepakat untuk membakukan Recording Tape tentang Garis Ampex ", Billboard, 28 Oktober 1957, hal 3. 3.
  15. ^ Some early broadcast videotapes have survived, including The Edsel Show , broadcast live in 1957, and 1958's An Evening With Fred Astaire , the oldest color videotape of an entertainment program known to exist (the oldest color videotape is the May 1958 dedication of the WRC-TV studios in Washington, DC ). ^ Beberapa rekaman video siaran awal telah selamat, termasuk The Show Edsel , disiarkan langsung pada tahun 1957, dan 1958's An Evening Dengan Fred Astaire , rekaman video warna tertua dari program hiburan diketahui ada (rekaman video warna tertua adalah Mei 1958 dedikasi WRC -TV studio di Washington, DC ). In 1976, NBC 's 50th anniversary special included an excerpt from a 1957 color special starring Donald O'Connor ; despite some obvious technical problems, the color tape was remarkably good. Pada tahun 1976, NBC 's khusus ulang tahun ke-50 termasuk sebuah kutipan dari warna 1957 khusus dibintangi Donald O'Connor ; meskipun beberapa masalah teknis yang jelas, pita warna sangat baik.
  16. ^ Elen, Richard G. " TV Technology ". ^ Elen, Richard G. " Teknologi TV ". BFI Screenonline. BFI Screenonline.
  17. ^ http://www.rewindmuseum.com/philips.htm ^ http://www.rewindmuseum.com/philips.htm
  18. ^ "DVC Product Probe" . http://www.videomaker.com/article/2381/ . ^ "DVC Produk Probe" . http://www.videomaker.com/article/2381/ .